2001. Number of Pairs of Interchangeable Rectangles

MediumArrayHash TableMathCountingNumber Theory
Leetcode Link

Problem Description

In this problem, we are given a list of n rectangles, each represented by their width and height as an element in a 2D integer array rectangles. For example, the i-th rectangle is represented as rectangles[i] = [width_i, height_i].

The task here is to find how many pairs of these rectangles are interchangeable. Two rectangles are considered interchangeable if they have the equivalent width-to-height ratio. In mathematical terms, rectangle i is interchangeable with rectangle j if width_i/height_i equals width_j/height_j. Note that we will be using decimal division to compare ratios.

The expected result is to return the total count of such interchangeable pairs among the rectangles provided.

Intuition

To find pairs of interchangeable rectangles, we focus on calculating the width-to-height ratio for each rectangle. However, directly comparing floating-point ratios might lead to precision issues. To avoid this, we normalize each width-to-height ratio by dividing both width and height by their greatest common divisor (GCD). This way, two rectangles that have the same width-to-height ratio will have the same normalized width and height, thus can be represented by the same key when stored.

To efficiently track how many rectangles have the same normalized width and height, we use a Counter data structure (a type of dictionary that is optimized for counting hashable objects). When we normalize a rectangle, we check how many we've seen with that same normalized width and height so far (using the Counter), and we increment our answer by that count—this is because each of those could form an interchangeable pair with the current rectangle.

For each rectangle, we then increment its count in the Counter. This step ensures that we keep track of all interchangeable rectangles encountered.

Combining these strategies allows us to count the pairs without comparing every rectangle to every other rectangle, which would be inefficient. The use of the greatest common divisor (GCD) ensures that we are accurately identifying interchangeable rectangles without floating-point arithmetic issues.

Solution Approach

The solution uses a combination of hashing and the greatest common divisor (GCD) algorithm to efficiently count interchangeable rectangle pairs.

Here is a step-by-step breakdown of the implementation:

  • We initialize the variable ans to store the total count of interchangeable rectangle pairs and a Counter data structure called cnt, which will be used to keep track of the occurrences of normalized width-to-height ratios.
  • We iterate over each rectangle given in the rectangles list.
    • For the current rectangle, w represents the width and h represents the height.
    • We calculate the greatest common divisor of w and h using the function gcd(w, h). This step is crucial as it allows us to normalize the width and height to their simplest ratio form.
    • We then normalize w and h by dividing them by the calculated GCD. As a result, the tuple (w // g, h // g) represents the unique key of the current ratio in its simplest form.
    • The expression cnt[(w, h)] retrieves the current count of rectangles that have been seen with the same normalized ratio. This count directly corresponds to the number of new pairs that can be formed with the current rectangle since each of those previous rectangles could form a pair with it.
    • We increment ans by the count retrieved from cnt[(w, h)].
    • Finally, we increment cnt[(w, h)] by 1 because we have encountered another rectangle with the same normalized ratio.

By hashing the normalized ratios, the algorithm ensures constant-time lookups for previous occurrences, bypassing the need for nested loops, which would increase the time complexity significantly.

The final result stored in ans is returned, which represents the total number of pairs of interchangeable rectangles within the input array.

Using this approach, the solution is both efficient and precise, utilizing the mathematical properties of ratios and the efficiencies gained through hashing.

Example Walkthrough

Let's consider an example with the following list of rectangles: rectangles = [[4, 8], [3, 6], [10, 20], [15, 30]].

We want to find the total count of interchangeable rectangle pairs that can be formed from these rectangles.

  1. First, we initialize ans to 0, which will hold our answer, and cnt, a Counter to keep track of normalized width-to-height ratios.
  2. For the first rectangle [4, 8], we compute its GCD to normalize the ratio. gcd(4, 8) is 4, so when we divide both by 4, the normalized ratio is (1, 2). We have not seen this ratio before, so cnt[(1, 2)] is 0. We then increment cnt[(1, 2)] by 1.
  3. Next, rectangle [3, 6] comes down to the same normalized ratio (1, 2) after dividing by the gcd(3, 6) which is 3. We check cnt[(1, 2)] which is 1 (from the previous step), so we increase ans by 1 and cnt[(1, 2)] becomes 2.
  4. Then, with rectangle [10, 20], after dividing by gcd(10, 20) which is 10, the ratio is again (1, 2). The cnt[(1, 2)] is currently 2, meaning we can form 2 more pairs with each of the rectangles we've seen before, so we add 2 to ans, making it a total of 3 so far, and cnt[(1, 2)] becomes 3.
  5. Lastly, for the rectangle [15, 30], we divide by gcd(15, 30) which is 15, and we get the normalized ratio (1, 2). Since cnt[(1, 2)] is 3, we add 3 to ans and increment cnt[(1, 2)].

Now, ans is 6, representing the total number of interchangeable rectangle pairs, and cnt[(1, 2)] is 4, indicating we saw the same ratio 4 times.

By applying our solution approach, we have efficiently found that there are 6 pairs of interchangeable rectangles in our example list without having to compare each rectangle to every other rectangle. This process has bypassed potential floating-point issues and kept the computation time to a minimum.

Python Solution

1from math import gcd
2from collections import Counter
3
4class Solution:
5    def interchangeableRectangles(self, rectangles: List[List[int]]) -> int:
6        # Initialize a variable to keep count of pairs
7        pair_count = 0
8      
9        # Initialize a counter to keep track of the occurrences of each ratio
10        ratio_counter = Counter()
11      
12        # Loop through each rectangle
13        for width, height in rectangles:
14            # Calculate the greatest common divisor of width and height
15            gcd_value = gcd(width, height)
16          
17            # Normalize the width and height by dividing them by the gcd to obtain the ratio
18            normalized_width, normalized_height = width // gcd_value, height // gcd_value
19          
20            # The number of rectangles with the same width-to-height ratio so far
21            # will be the number of interchangeable rectangle pairs we can form with the current one
22            pair_count += ratio_counter[(normalized_width, normalized_height)]
23          
24            # Increment the counter for the current ratio
25            ratio_counter[(normalized_width, normalized_height)] += 1
26      
27        return pair_count
28

Java Solution

1class Solution {
2    public long interchangeableRectangles(int[][] rectangles) {
3        long countInterchangeablePairs = 0; // this will hold the final answer
4        int n = rectangles.length + 1; // using length + 1 to ensure a unique mapping when multiplied
5        Map<Long, Integer> ratioCountMap = new HashMap<>(); // this map stores the counts of each unique rectangle ratio
6
7        // Loop through each rectangle
8        for (int[] rectangle : rectangles) {
9            int width = rectangle[0];
10            int height = rectangle[1];
11            int gcdValue = gcd(width, height); // compute the greatest common divisor of width and height
12            width /= gcdValue; // normalize the width by the gcd
13            height /= gcdValue; // normalize the height by the gcd
14            long ratioHash = (long) width * n + height; // create a unique hash for the width/height ratio
15
16            // Update the number of interchangeable pairs count
17            countInterchangeablePairs += ratioCountMap.getOrDefault(ratioHash, 0);
18            // Increase the count for this ratio in the map
19            ratioCountMap.merge(ratioHash, 1, Integer::sum);
20        }
21        return countInterchangeablePairs; // return the total count of interchangeable rectangle pairs
22    }
23
24    // Helper function to compute the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two numbers
25    private int gcd(int a, int b) {
26        return b == 0 ? a : gcd(b, a % b);
27    }
28}
29

C++ Solution

1#include <vector>
2#include <unordered_map>
3using namespace std;
4
5class Solution {
6public:
7    long long interchangeableRectangles(vector<vector<int>>& rectangles) {
8        long long answer = 0;  // This will hold the final count of interchangeable rectangle pairs
9        int numRectangles = rectangles.size();  // Total number of rectangles given
10        unordered_map<long long, int> countMap;  // Hashmap to store the count of rectangles with the same ratio
11      
12        for (auto& rectangle : rectangles) {
13            int width = rectangle[0], height = rectangle[1];  // Extract the width and height of the current rectangle
14            int gcdValue = gcd(width, height);  // Find greatest common divisor of width and height to get the ratio
15            width /= gcdValue;  // Simplify width by dividing by the gcd
16            height /= gcdValue;  // Similarly, simplify height by dividing by the gcd
17
18            // 'key' is the unique identifier for the ratio of width to height.
19            // Multiplying width by a large number (greater than the maximum height)
20            // and then adding the height ensures a unique value for each width to height ratio.
21            long long key = 1LL * width * (numRectangles + 1) + height;
22          
23            // If a rectangle with the same ratio was already encountered,
24            // then increase the count of interchangeable pairs by the count of those rectangles.
25            answer += countMap[key];
26          
27            // Increment the count of the current ratio by 1.
28            countMap[key]++;
29        }
30      
31        return answer;  // Return the total count of interchangeable rectangle pairs.
32    }
33
34private:
35    // Utility function to calculate greatest common divisor
36    int gcd(int a, int b) {
37        while (b != 0) {
38            int temp = b;
39            b = a % b;
40            a = temp;
41        }
42        return a;
43    }
44};
45

Typescript Solution

1/** 
2 * Function to find the number of pairs of rectangles that are interchangeable.
3 * Rectangles are interchangeable if one can become the other by resizing.
4 * We normalize each rectangle's dimensions by their greatest common divisor (GCD)
5 * and count occurrences of each unique pair of normalized dimensions.
6 * @param {number[][]} rectangles - A list of rectangle specifications, given by [width, height].
7 * @return {number} - The number of interchangeable rectangle pairs.
8 */
9function interchangeableRectangles(rectangles: number[][]): number {
10    const countMap: Map<number, number> = new Map();
11    let pairCount: number = 0;
12
13    for (let [width, height] of rectangles) {
14        // Calculate the greatest common divisor of width and height
15        const gcdValue: number = gcd(width, height);
16
17        // Normalize the width and height using gcdValue
18        width = Math.floor(width / gcdValue);
19        height = Math.floor(height / gcdValue);
20
21        // Create a unique hash (or map key) for the normalized rectangle dimensions
22        const hash: number = width * (rectangles.length + 1) + height;
23      
24        // Increment the pair count by the number of occurrences already found
25        pairCount += (countMap.get(hash) || 0);
26      
27        // Update the map with the new count for the current normalized dimensions
28        countMap.set(hash, (countMap.get(hash) || 0) + 1);
29    }
30  
31    return pairCount;
32}
33
34/** 
35 * Helper function to calculate the greatest common divisor of two numbers.
36 * @param {number} a - First number
37 * @param {number} b - Second number
38 * @return {number} - The greatest common divisor of a and b.
39 */
40function gcd(a: number, b: number): number {
41    if (b === 0) {
42        return a;
43    }
44    return gcd(b, a % b);
45}
46

Time and Space Complexity

Time Complexity

The time complexity of the given code is primarily determined by the for loop that iterates over every rectangle within the rectangles list. During each iteration, the following operations occur:

  • Calculating the greatest common divisor (GCD) for the width and height of the rectangle, which is done using the gcd function. The time complexity of the gcd function is generally O(log(min(w, h))), where w and h are the width and height of the rectangle.
  • Reducing the width and height by dividing by their GCD.
  • Checking and updating the count of a particular ratio (width to height) in the hash map implemented by the Counter class.

Assuming n represents the number of rectangles, the time complexity for the gcd operation, which is the most expensive operation inside the loop, adds up to O(n * log(min(w, h))). However, since this is a reduction to the simplest form, the value of log(min(w, h)) is small compared to n. Therefore, we often approximate this to O(n) when w and h are not extreme values.

The lookup and update in the hash map cnt have an average-case time complexity of O(1) for each operation since these operations are constant time in a hash map (dictionary in Python) on average.

Thus, the overall average time complexity of the code is O(n).

Space Complexity

The space complexity of the code is influenced by the space required to store the reduced width and height pairs in a hash map. In the worst case, if all rectangles have different width-to-height ratios, the space complexity would be O(n) because each rectangle would be represented in the hash map after reduction.

Furthermore, the counter ans is using O(1) space and the gcd call does not use additional space proportional to n.

Therefore, the total space complexity of the given code is O(n).


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