Public Library

In this question, we ask you to design a system for a public library that allows the looking up of books. You must design the system in a way that is easily expandable.

This question will come in parts, and you need to answer the previous part before moving on. You are advised to copy the code from the previous section to be used as a starting point for the next.

Part One

The library has a collection of books. All books has a title, which is usually a hint to their content. When a book is put in the system, it is also assigned a unique ID to identify the book, which consists of alphanumeric characters plus -.

Right now, there are two types of books in the library:

  • Traditional books, where an author writes something and gets published. They can be represented as "<book name>" by <author name>. For example, "Macbeth" by W. Shakespeare (stretching a bit of the definition of a book here) or "The Lord of the Rings" by J. R. R. Tolkien. For the purpose of this question, two authors are the same if and only if the string representing them are the same, so we treat W. Shakespeare and William Shakespeare as different authors, even though they represent the same person.
  • Magazines, where a group of people publishes a magazine series regularly. They can be represented as "<magazine name>" Issue <issue number>. For example, "New York Times" Issue 2.

For the first part, implement these following commands:

  • register book [ID] [book]: Register a traditional book under the ID. If the ID is used by another book already, do nothing. Multiple copies of the same book can be registered as different IDs.
  • register magazine [ID] [book]: Register a magazine under the ID, following the above rules.
  • lookup id [ID]: Print the book who is registered as ID, followed by ID: [ID] in the following line, if such ID exists in the system. Otherwise, print "No such book exists".
  • lookup title [book title]: Look up a book by title (either a traditional book or a magazine). If exactly one book in the system match the title, print the book in the first line, and print ID: [ID] in the second line. If multiple books match the title, print "[number] books match the title: [title]", where number is the number of books that match the title. If no book match the title, print "No such book exists".
  • lookup author [author]: Same as looking up by author, except look up a traditional book by author, and if multiple books exists, print "[number] books match the author: [author]" instead.

Input

  • instructions: A list of instructions.

Output

The list of strings as outputs.

Examples

Example 1

Input:

instructions = [
  'register book B-001 "Macbeth" by W. Shakespeare',
  'register book B-002 "Hamlet" by W. Shakespeare',
  'register book B-003 "The Lord of the Rings" by J. R. R. Tolkien',
  'register magazine M-001 "New York Times" Issue 2',
  'lookup id B-002',
  'lookup title Macbeth',
  'lookup author W. Shakespeare',
  'lookup author J. R. R. Tolkien',
  'lookup title New York Times'
]

Output:

[
  '"Hamlet" by W. Shakespeare',
  'ID: B-002',
  '"Macbeth" by W. Shakespeare',
  'ID: B-001',
  '2 books match the author: W. Shakespeare',
  '"The Lord of the Rings" by J. R. R. Tolkien',
  'ID: B-003',
  '"New York Times" Issue 2',
  'ID: M-001'
]

Try it yourself

Solution

Title

Script

Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the 1500s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it to make a type specimen book.

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text.

  >>> a = [1, 2, 3]
  >>> a[-1]
  3

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