# Graph Fundamentals

## Tree with 0+ cycle

At this point, you should be pretty familiar with trees. A tree is a special graph - a *connected* *acyclic* (cycle-less) graph. A graph may contain cycle(s) and nodes could be disconnected.

## Graph Terminologies

A graph consists of **vertices** ("nodes" in trees) and **edges**. Vertices are connected by edges. Two vertices connected by an edge are called **neighbors** and are adjacent ("children" in trees).

Edges can be undirected or directed. For most interview problems we are dealing with undirected graphs. A tree is also an undirected graph. We'll discuss directed graph in the course schedule module.

A path is a sequence of vertices. A cycle is a path that starts and ends at the same vertex.

An undirected graph is connected if every vertex is joined by a path to another vertex. Otherwise, it's disconnected.

A graph is most commonly stored as a map of adjacency lists: for each vertex, store a list of its neighbors.

Note that even though a graph is represented as an adjacency list , we don't actually have to create it upfront. What we really need is a function to get a vertex's neighbors. We'll see that in the next module.